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This nowCOAST™ time-offsets map service provides maps depicting the latest global surface forecast guidance of water currents, water temperature, and salinity at forecast projections: 0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, and 96-hours from the NWS/NCEP Global Real-Time Ocean Forecast System (GRTOFS). Each forecast is valid for the specified forecast projection hour with respect to the latest forecast cycle time (e.g. 0000 UTC). On each map of water temperature, water currents, and salinity forecast guidance, the surface water currents are displayed on top using streaklets where the magnitude is indicated by the length and width of the streaklet. Either white or black streaklets are used depending on the prominent color of the background. For speed, white streaklets are used for a color background which uses a color scale from black to gray is used to depict speeds from 0 to 4 knots at 0.5 knot increments, except for 0.25 knot intervals from 0 to 0.5 knots. For salinity, a white streaklets are used for a color background which uses a color scale from black to dark red is used to display salinity values from 0 to 40 ppt at 4 ppt increments. Colors were chosen to highlight approximate thresholds for freshwater, brackish water, and saline waters. For water temperature, black streaklets are used for a color background which uses a color scale from dark blue to orange to indicate temperatures from 28 degrees F to 88 degrees F at 2 degree increments. The maps of the GRTOFS surface forecast guidance are updated on the nowCOAST™ map service once per day. For more detailed information about layer update frequency and timing, please reference the nowCOAST™ Dataset Update Schedule.
GRTOFS is based on the Hybrid Coordinates Ocean Model (HYCOM), an eddy resolving, hybrid coordinate numerical ocean prediction model. GRTOFS has global coverge and a horizontal resolution of 1/12 degree and 32 hybrid vertical layers. It has one forecast cycle per day (i.e. 0000 UTC) which generates forecast guidance out to 144 hours (6 days). However, nowCOAST™ only provides guidance out to 96 hours (4 days). The forecast cycle uses 3-hourly momentum and radiation fluxes along with precipitation predictions from the NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS). Each forecast cycle is preceded with a 48-hr long nowcast cycle. The nowcast cycle uses daily initial 3-D fields from the NAVOCEANO operational HYCOM-based forecast system which assimilates in situ profiles of temperature and salinity from a variety of sources and remotely sensed SST, SSH and sea-ice concentrations. GRTOFS was developed by NCEP/EMC/Marine Modeling and Analysis Branch. GRTOFS is run once per day (0000 UTC forecast cycle) on the NOAA Weather and Climate Operational Supercomputer System (WCOSS) operated by NWS/NCEP Central Operations.
The maps are generated using a visualization technique developed by the Data Visualization Research Lab at The University of New Hampshire's Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping (http://www.ccom.unh.edu/vislab/). The method combines two techniques. First, equally spaced streamlines are computed in the flow field using Jobard and Lefer's (1977) algorithm. Second, a series of "streaklets" are rendered head to tail along each streamline to show the direction of flow. Each of these varies along its length in size, color and transparency using a method developed by Fowler and Ware (1989), and later refined by Mr. Pete Mitchell and Dr. Colin Ware (Mitchell, 2007).
This nowCOAST™ map service is not time-enabled, although it does contain time-varying data. Instead of supporting the time dimension through use of a time parameter in each map request, each individual map layer contains data valid for a different "time offset", or forecast projection, from the dataset's reference time.
Due to software limitations, the full temporal resolution (i.e. maximum forecast horizon and/or all forecast projections) of the data is not provided by this service. Instead, a corresponding time-enabled service containing the full temporal resolution is available for this dataset, and users are highly encouraged to use that service instead, if possible.
This time-offsets map service is provided as a convenience for users who are not yet capable of interacting directly with the time dimension, especially users of legacy nowCOAST™ version 4 map services who wish to access the same data using the new nowCOAST™ version 5 map services. However, this service may be terminated with little advance notice at a later date.
In addition to ArcGIS Server REST access, time-enabled OGC WMS 1.3.0 access is is also provided by this service.
In order to determine the latest time information about the data included in this map service, users have two options: